Sunday, May 06, 2007

ENV: Big Springs Ranch Report, 6 May 2007

Floral & Faunal Survey of BIG SPRINGS RANCH
north of Leakey, Real County, Texas
6 May 2007

TX: Real County, Big Springs on the Frio River, Big Springs Ranch, 9 miles N of Leakey E off US83 (location bounded by HEB Camp/Laity Lodge and Lost Maples State Natural Area), gate: 29.8437dN 099.6508dW, 1900’ elev., 29 April 2007, 7:45 a.m.- 4:30 p.m., 75-77dF, heavy overcast, constant drizzle, occasional light rain, warm and muggy. Tony Gallucci (Ingram).

On this trip 68 taxa were either added new to the Ranch list or observed for the first time during the new series of surveys begun in April 2006, and thus confirmed continued presence.

Post Codes and Classification
* Feral, Introduced, Adventitious, Invasive and/or Exotic, but free-ranging
** Exotic, but captive or cultivated
*** Native, but captive or cultivated
☼ Breeding or nesting on the property
^ Documented by photograph
Common Name, Scientific name, Codes
This symbol * before the name indicates flowering this date.
This symbol # before the name indicates fruiting this date.


1 Asian Clam, Corbicula fluminea
32 White Globesnail, Helicina orbiculata
5 Roemer’s Mitre Snail, Metastoma roemeri roemeri
3 Texas Mitre Snail, Microceramus texanus (New for BSRC)

webs Long-jawed Orb-weaver sp.

1 Gray-striped Fly sp.
1 Ghost Cranefly, Brachypremna dispellens (New for BSRC)
2 Mosquito sp.
3 Shoreline Fly sp.

1 Red and Gold Wasp sp. on Mealy Sage ^
1 Red and Black Wasp on Woolly-white ^
4 European Honeybee, Apis mellifera
+ Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta ^
+ Native Fire Ant, Solenopsis xyloni ^
+ Black-fuzzy-butt Orange Honeycomb Limestone Ant, cf. Camponotus sp. ^
+ Road Burrow Ant sp.

4 Pygmy Grasshopper sp. undetermined

1 Tree Cricket sp., Oecanthus sp.

20 Notonectid sp. Notonecta sp.
2 Water Boatman sp., Hesperocorixa sp.
+ Gerrid Strider sp., Gerris sp.
+ Veliid Strider sp., Rhagovelia sp.
+ cf. Scarlet Plant Bug sp. on Texas Mountain Laurel, cf. Lopidea sp.
3 Spittle Bug sp.
2 Big-headed Bug, Megalotomus quinquespinosus (Say)

2 Spotted Tiger Beetle, Cicindela punctulata punctulata Olivier
1 Small Coppery Cotinis-like Scarab Beetle sp. ^

+ Tent Caterpillar sp. on Yellow Buckeye ☼
150 of ca. 9 sp. Unidentified Moth (some ^)
2 Geometer Moth sp. I
2 Gold Pyralid moth sp.
1 Pearly White Pyralid Moth sp.
1 Ironweed Root Moth
304 Day-flying Moth, Hypocala andromoena

2 Tatius (Mournful) Duskywing/Funereal Duskywing, Erynnis tristis tatius/funeralis
2 Funereal Duskywing, Erynnis funeralis
5 Eastern Dun Skipper, Euphyes vestris metacomet
1 Southern Broken-Dash, Wallengrenia otho otho (J.E. Smith) ^
1 Sachem, Atalopedes campestris
1 Nysa Roadside-Skipper, Amblyscirtes nysa W.H. Edwards ^

3 Pipevine Swallowtail, Battus philenor philenor (Linnaeus)
2 Eastern Black Swallowtail, Papilio polyxenes asterius Stoll
1 Orange Sulphur, Colias eurytheme Boisduval ^
1 Little Yellow, Pyrisitia lisa lisa (Boisduval & Le Conte)
40 Sleepy Orange, Abaeis nicippe (Cramer) ^
34 Dainty Sulphur, Nathalis iole Boisduval ^
30 Checkered White, Pontia protodice ^
1 Texan Olive Hairstreak, Callophrys (Mitoura) gryneus castalis (W.H. Edwards) ^
15 Plains Gray Hairstreak, Strymon melinus franki Field ^
22 Reakirt’s Blue, Echinargus isola alce (W.H. Edwards) ^
4 Question Mark, Polygonia interrogationis
2 Western Queen, Danaus gilippus thersippus (H.W. Bates) ^
3 Variegated Fritillary, Euptoieta claudia (Cramer)
5 Phaon Crescent, Phyciodes phaon ^
8 Vesta Crescent, Phyciodes graphica vesta (W.H. Edwards) ^
5 Common Buckeye, Junonia coenia Hübner
36 Red Admiral, Vanessa atalanta ^

40 Large Tiger-striped Ephemeropteran Nymph

6 American Rubyspot, Hetaerina americana (Fabricius)
4 Kiowa Dancer, Argia immunda (Hagen)
4 Blue-ringed Dancer, Argia sedula (Hagen)
1 Dot-winged-complex Baskettail, Epitheca cf. petechialis
1 Pale-faced Clubskimmer, Brechmorhoga mendax (Hagen)
1 Widow Skimmer, Libellula luctuosa (New for BSRC)

6 Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus
1 Common Carp, Cyprinus carpio
32 Roundnose Minnow, Dionda episcopa
22 Blacktail Shiner, Cyprinella venusta
3 Shiner sp. III
130 Largespring Mosquitofish, Gambusia geiseri
14 Redbreast Sunfish, Lepomis auritus
8 Redear Sunfish, Lepomis microlophus
1 Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides

30+100lv Blanchard’s Cricket Frog, Acris crepitans blanchardi ☼
1 Cliff Chirping Frog, Eleutherodactylus/Syrrhopus marnocki
4lv Rio Grande Leopard Frog, Rana berlandieri ☼
1lv Large Frog sp.

3+nest with at least 2 young Great Blue Heron, Ardea herodias ☼
15 Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura
2+possible cave nest site Black Vulture, Coragyps atratus (☼?)
1 Osprey, Pandion haliaeetus (New for BSRC)
5 Spotted Sandpiper, Actitis macularius
2 Mourning Dove, Zenaida macroura
1 White-winged Dove, Zenaida asiatica
1 Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Coccyzus americana
1 Black-chinned Hummingbird, Archilochus alexandri
2 Green Kingfisher, Chloroceryle americana
6 Ladder-backed Woodpecker, Picoides scalaris
2+nest Eastern Phoebe, Sayornis phoebe ☼
2 Black Phoebe, Sayornis nigricans
5 Eastern Wood-Pewee, Contopus virens
10 Ash-throated Flycatcher, Myiarchus cinerascens
3 Great Crested Flycatcher, Myiarchus crinitus
6 White-eyed Vireo, Vireo griseus
3 Yellow-throated Vireo, Vireo flavifrons
3 Red-eyed Vireo, Vireo olivaceus
1 Blue-headed Vireo, Vireo solitarius
2 Western Scrub-Jay, Aphelocoma coerulescens
2+nest with 3 young Common Raven, Corvus corax ☼^
16 Barn Swallow, Hirundo rustica
6 Cave Swallow, Petrochildon fulva
30+nest colony Cliff Swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota ☼
2 Northern Rough-winged Swallow, Stelgidopteryx serripennis
4 Purple Martin, Progne subis
86 Swallow sp.
4 Carolina Chickadee, Poecile carolinensis
14 Black-crested Titmouse, Baeolophus atricristatus
2 Bushtit, Psaltriparus minimus
7 Bewick's Wren, Thryomanes bewickii
6 Canyon Wren, Catherpes mexicanus
4 Carolina Wren, Thryothorus carolinensis
2 Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, Polioptila caerulea
1 Northern Mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos
1 Gray Catbird, Dumetella carolinense

3 Parula sp., Parula sp.
2 Black-and-White Warbler, Mniotilta varia
5 Golden-cheeked Warbler, Dendroica chrysoparia
6 Yellow-throated Warbler, Dendroica dominica
5 Louisiana Waterthrush, Seiurus motacilla
1 Yellow-breasted Chat, Icteria virens
9 Summer Tanager, Piranga rubra
3 Chipping Sparrow, Spizella passerina
2 Rufous-crowned Sparrow, Aimophila rufescens
8 Lark Sparrow, Chondestes grammacus
1 Dickcissel, Spiza americana
10 Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis
2 Painted Bunting, Passerina ciris
2 Bronzed Cowbird, Molothrus aeneus
5 House Finch, Carpodacus mexicanus
7 Lesser Goldfinch, Carduelis psaltria

several pawprints Large Cat (large Bobcat/Small Mountina Lion)
damage Domestic Pig [Feral Hog], Sus scrofa
5 Afghan Ural/Persian Red Sheep, Ovis ammon gmelini
2 Ibex X Spanish Goat, Capra sp. X Capra hirca ^
2 Llama, Auchenia glama
7 Domestic Horse [Quarterhorse, Mustang, Tobiano, Red Roan Appaloosa], Equus caballus
1 Domestic Donkey [Sicilian], Equus asinus

Thick Orange Shelf Fungus on Walnut sp. ^

Sea Green Crustose Lichen on Limestone
Orange Crustose Lichen on Limestone ^
Black Crustose Lichen on Limestone ^ (New to Ranch)
White Crustose Lichen on Limestone ^ (New to Ranch)
Rose Crustose Lichen on Limestone ^ (New to Ranch)
Lemon Yellow Crustose Lichen on Limestone ^ (New to Ranch)
Wet Green Lichen on Limestone ^ (New to Ranch)
Sea Green Foliose Lichen on Plateau Live Oak
Orange Foliose Lichen on Plateau Live Oak

Green Algae sp.

Aquatic Moss sp.
Dryland Moss on Limestone
Dryland Moss on Bark

Thalloid Liverwort sp.

Tiny-leaved Fern sp.  (New to Ranch)
Maidenhair Fern, Adiantum capillus-veneris
Wavyleaf Cloakfern, Notholaena sinuata ^
Alabama Lipfern, Cheilanthes alabamensis ^
Purple Cliffbrake, Pellaea atropurpurea ^
ZigZag Cliffbrake, Pellaea ovata ^
River Shieldfern, Thelypteris ovata var. lindheimeri
Mexican Curlygrass Fern, Anemia mexicana ^

# Ashe Juniper/Mountain Cedar, Juniperus ashei
Bald Cypress, Taxodium distichum

Water Bentgrass, Agrostis semiverticillata (Polypogon viridis)
*# Bushybeard Bluestem, Andropogon glomeratus
*# King Ranch Bluestem, Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica *
*# Sideoats Grama, Bouteloua curtipendula
*# Texas Grama, Bouteloua rigidiseta
*# Buffalograss, Buchloe dactyloides
*# Buffelgrass, Cenchrus ciliaris  (New to Ranch)
*# Coastal Bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon *
*# Panicgrass sp., Dichanthelium (Panicum) sp.
*# English Perennial Rye, Lolium perenne (L. multiflorum) *
*# Shining Melic Grass, Melica nitens
Lindheimer Muhly, Muhlenbergia lindheimeri ^
Seep Muhly, Muhlenbergia reverchonii
*# Texas Wintergrass/Speargrass, Stipa (Nassella) leucotricha
Indiangrass, Sorghastrum nutans
Johnson Grass, Sorghum halepense *
Domestic Grass sp. **
White-top Sedge sp., Rhynchospora (Dichromena) sp. ^
*# Black Sedge, Schoenus nigricans
Jamiacan Sawgrass, Cladium jamaicense
*# Spring Rainlily, Cooperia pedunculata ^
* Drummond Wild Garlic, Allium drummondii ^
* Crowpoison, Nothoscordum bivalve (L.) Britt.
* cf. Hybrid Yucca, Yucca rupicola X Y. cf. constricta ^
* Twistleaf Yucca, Yucca rupicola ^
Spanish Dagger, Yucca treculeana
[Candlestick/Torrey Yucca, Yucca cf. torreyi ]
Soaptree Yucca, Yucca cf. elata ** (New to Ranch)
Century Plant, Agave americana ** (New to Ranch)
Havard Agave, Agave havardiana ** (New to Ranch)
* Manfreda sp., Manfreda sp. **
Texas Sotol, Dasylirion texanum
Devil’s Shoestring/Lindheimer’s Nolina, Nolina lindheimeriana
Greenbriar, Smilax bona-nox
Briar sp., Smilax sp.
* Blue-eyed Grass sp., Sisyrhinchium sp. ^
* Giant Helleborine/Chatterbox Orchid, Epipactis gigantea
Purple Heart Wandering Jew, Tradescantia (Setcreasea) pallida ** (New to Ranch)
* Erect Dayflower, Commelina erecta ^ (New to Ranch)
Ballmoss, Tillandsia recurvata
Banana, Musa X paradisiaca **
Red Canna, Canna glauca **
* Longleaf Pondweed, Potamogeton nodosus
* Yellow Pond Lily/Cow Lily, Nuphar lutea ^
cf. Carolina Fanwort, Cabomba caroliniana (New to Ranch)
Lombardy Black Poplar, Populas nigra var. italica **
* Pansy, Viola tricolor **
Spurge sp., Euphorbia sp. ^
* Roemer’s Spurge, Euphorbia roemeri
* Wild Poinsettia, Euphorbia (Poinsettia) cyathophora ^
Croton sp. I, Croton sp. ^
Croton sp. II, Croton sp.
* Lindheimer’s Copperleaf/Three-seeded Mercury, Acalypha lindheimeri
Common Noseburn, Tragia ramosa
Yellow Passionflower, Passiflora affinis
* Rock/Perennial Flax, Linum rupestre ^
* Stiffstem Flax, Linum rigidum var. berlandieri ^
Pecan, Carya illinoensis
Walnut sp., Juglans sp.
Texas Oak/Spanish Oak, Quercus buckleyi (Q. texana)
Plateau Live Oak, Quercus fusiformis
Lacey Oak/Blue Oak, Quercus laceyi (Q. glaucoides)
Plateau Chinkapin Oak, Quercus muhlenbergii var. brayi
Scalybark/Bastard/Shin Oak, Quercus sinuata var. breviloba
* Nipple Cactus, Coryphantha sulcata ^
White Lace Cactus, Echinocereus reichenbachii var. reichenbachii
Claret Cup Cactus, Echinocereus triglochidiatus ^
* Engelmann’s Prickly Pear, Opuntia lindheimeri ^
Spineless Prickly Pear, Opuntia ficus-indica ** (New to Ranch)
Cane Cholla, Opuntia imbricata ** (New to Ranch)
Common Four O’Clock, Mirabilis jalapa **
Sugarberry, Celtis laevigata
Netleaf Hackberry, Celtis reticulata
Texas Littleleaf Mulberry, Morus microphylla
Common Fig, Ficus carica. *
Cedar Elm, Ulmus crassifolia
Escarpment Black Cherry, Prunus serotina ssp. eximia
Plum sp., Prunus sp. **
Pear, Pyrus cf. communis **
Mountain Mahogany, Cercocarpus montanus
Carolina Buckthorn, Rhamnus caroliniana
Green Squawbush, Condalia viridis 
False-nettle, Boehmeria cylindrica
* Cucumberweed, Parietaria pensylvanica (P. obtusa)
Crepe Myrtle, Lagerstroemia indica * (also **)
* cf. Plateau/Stream Loosestrife, Lythrum ovalifolium
* Showy Pink Evening-Primrose, Oenothera speciosa ^
* Limestone Gaura, Gaura calcicola ^
* Red Bottlebrush, Callistemon citrinus **
Texas Persimmon, Diospyros texana
Gum Bumelia, Sideroxylon (Bumelia) lanuginosa ^
* Drummond’s Phlox, Phlox drummondii ^
* Largeflower Brook-Primrose, Samolus cuneatus
* Creeping Yellow Sida, Sida abutifolia (S. filicaulis)
Indian Mallow, Abutilon incanum ^
* Standing Winecup, Callirhoe digitata ^
Carolina Basswood, Tilia americana var. caroliniana
* Texas Mock-Orange, Philadelphus texensis
* Stinging Stickleaf, Cevallia sinuata (New to Ranch)
Spicebush, Lindera benzoin
Mexican Buckeye, Ungnadia speciosa
Yellow (Red) Buckeye, Aesculus pavia var. flavescens
Rocky Mountain Bigtooth Maple, Acer grandidentatum var. grandidentatum
Prairie Flameleaf Sumac, Rhus lanceolata
Poison Ivy, Rhus toxicodendron var. toxicodendron
Poison Oak, Rhus toxicodendron var. eximia
Skunkbush/Aromatic Sumac, Rhus trilobata var. trilobata (R. aromatica var. flabelliformis)
Evergreen Sumac, Rhus virens
Chinese Pistache, Pistacia chinensis ** (New to Ranch)
# Lindheimer’s/Mexican Silk-tassel, Garrya ovata var. lindheimeri
# Chinaberry, Melia azedarach **
# Wafer Ash/Hoptree, Ptelea trifoliolata
Wild Carrot sp.
* Sockbane, Torilis arvensis ^
* Texas Parsley, Polytaenia texana
* Prairie Bishop’s Weed, Bifora americana (New to Ranch)
Water Pennywort, Hydrocotyle verticillata
Tree of Heaven, Ailanthus altissima *
Western Sycamore, Platanus occidentalis
Lindheimer’s Indigobush, Amorpha lindheimeri
Roemer’s Catclaw Acacia, Acacia roemeriana
Huisache, Acacia smallii (A.miniata, A. farnesiana)
# Texas Redbud, Cercis canadensis var. texensis
Fragrant Pink Mimosa, Mimosa borealis
Honey Mesquite, Prosopis glandulosa
# Texas Mountain-Laurel/Mescalbean, Sophora secundiflora
# Eve’s Necklace, Sophora affinis ^
Lindheimer Senna, Senna (Cassia) lindheimeriana
# Leavenworth Vetch, Vicia leavenworthii
Texas Bushclover, Lespedeza texana
* Least Bur-Clover, Medicago minima
Sensitive-Briar sp.
* Snout Pea sp.
* Scarlet Pea, Indigofera miniata ^ (New to Ranch)
Windflower, Anemone heterophylla ^
* Scarlet Leatherflower, Clematis texensis ^
* Yellow Columbine, Aquilegia chrysantha ** (New to Ranch)
# Agarita, Berberis trifoliolata
# Nandina, Nandina domestica ** (New to Ranch)
* Yellow/Mexican Prickly Poppy, Argemone mexicana ^
* White Prickly Poppy, Argemone sp. (A. aurantiaca?) ^
Carolina Snailseed, Cocculus carolina
# Mountain Grape, Vitis monticola
Virginia Creeper, Parthenoscissus quinquefolia
* cf. Thicket Creeper, Parthenocissus cf. vitacea (New to Ranch)
Western Buttonbush, Cephalanthus occidentalis
* Bluets sp., Hedyotis sp.
* Antelopehorns Milkweed, Asclepias asperula ^
Milkvine sp., Matelea sp.
Yellow Woodsorrel/Common Sour-Clover, Oxalis dillenii ^
Spearmint, Mentha spicata *
* Annual Pennyroyal, Hedeoma acinioides
* Mock Pennyroyal/Limoncillo, Hedeoma drummondii ^
* Prairie Brazoria, Brazoria scutellarioides ^ (New to Ranch)
* Mealy Sage, Salvia farinacea ^
* Purple Spires Sage, Salvia leucantha **
* Annual/Drummond’s Skullcap, Scutellaria drummondii ^
Rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis **
Chaste-Tree/Mediterranean Beach-Holly, Vitex agnus-castus * (also **)
* American Water-willow, Justicia americana (New to Ranch)
* Dakota Vervain, Verbena bipinnatifida ^
* Gray Vervain, Verbena canescens ^
* Texas Lantana, Lantana horrida ** (New to Ranch)
* Frogfruit, Phyla incisa  (New to Ranch)
* Common/Woolly Mullein, Verbascum thapsus *
Green Cloud Sage, Leucophyllum frutescens cult. **
Purple Sage, Leucophyllum frutescens ** (New to Ranch)
* Redbud, Menodora heterophylla
Netleaf Elbowbush, Forestiera reticulata
* Redseed Plantain, Plantago rhodosperma ^
* Paleseed Plantain, Plantago virginica
Snapdragon Vine, Maurandya antirhiniflora
Desert Willow, Chilopsis linearis **
Catalpa, Catalpa bignonioides **
* Trumpet Creeper, Campsis radicans **
* Buffalo Bur, Solanum rostratum (New to Ranch)
* Western Horsenettle, Solanum dimidiatum
* Silverleaf Horsenettle, Solanum eleagnifolium
* Blue-Curls, Phacelia congesta ^
* White Evolvulus, Evolvulus sericeus
Lindheimer’s Morning Glory, Ipomoea lindheimeri ^ (New to Ranch)
* Pink Bindweed sp., Ipomoea sp. ^
* Water-Cress, Nasturtium officinale (Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum)
* Wedgeleaf Draba, Draba cuneifolia
*# Plateau Bladderpod, Lesquerella recurvata
# Virginia Peppergrass, Lepidium virginicum (New to Ranch)
Balsam-Gourd/Snake-Apple, Ibervillea lindheimeri
Buffalo Gourd, Cucurbita foetidissima (New to Ranch)
* Venus’ Looking-Glass, Triodanis perfoliata
Rooseveltweed/Baccharis, Baccharis neglecta
* Rabbit-Tobacco sp., Evax sp.
Fragrant Cudweed, Gnaphalium obtusifolium
Shrubby Boneset/Thoroughwort, Eupatorium havanense
* Lindheimer’s Rock-Daisy, Perityle lindheimeri ^
* Straggler Daisy, Calyptocarpus vialis ^
* Pinchusion Daisy, Gaillardia suavis ^
* Indian Blanket, Gaillardia pulchella ^
* Hairy Least-Daisy/Dwarf White Aster, Chaetopappa bellidifolia ^
* Spreading Least-Daisy, Chaetopappa effusa
* Lazy Daisy sp., Aphanostephus sp. ^
* Plains/Prairie Fleabane, Erigeron modestus ^
* Hairy Zexmenia, Wedelia (Zexmenia) hispida ^
Frostweed/Iceplant, Verbesina virginica
* Greenthread, Thelesperma filifolium ^
* Creekside Sneezeweed, Helenium elegans
Mexican Hat, Ratibida columnaris
Copper Canyon Daisy, Tagetes lemonii
* Parralena, Dyssodia pentachaeta ^
* Slenderleaf Hymenoxys, Hymenoxys linearifolia ^ (New to Ranch)
* Engelmann’s Daisy, Engelmannia pinnatifida ^
Streamside Goldenrod, Solidago sp. (S. juliae?)
* Woolly-White/Old Plainsman, Hymenopappus scabiosaeus ^
# Cocklebur sp., Xanthium sp.
* White Rock-Lettuce, Pinaropappus roseus ^
* Silverpuff/Nodding Lettuce, Chaptalia texana (C. nutans)
* Texas Dandelion, Pyrrhopappus multicaulis ^
* Sow-Thistle, Sonchus asper ^
* Dandelion, Taraxacum officinale * (New to Ranch)
* Texas Thistle, Cirsium texanum ^
* Bullthistle/Nodding Thistle, Carduus nutans *
* Slender Bristle-thistle, Carduus tenuiflorus
* # Malta/Yellow Star-thistle, Centaruea melitensis *
* Curly Lettuce, Lactuca sativa ** (New to Ranch)
Small Palmate Pseudo-aquatic Plant sp. (New to Ranch)



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